LS(1)                            User Commands                           LS(1)

ls – list directory contents

ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…

List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are  mandatory  for  short  options

-a, –all
do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, –almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

with -l, print the author of each file

-b, –escape
print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

use SIZE-byte blocks

-B, –ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

-c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
file status information) with -l: show ctime and  sort  by  name
otherwise: sort by ctime

-C     list entries by columns

control  whether  color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN
may be ג€˜neverג€™, ג€˜alwaysג€™, or ג€˜autoג€™

-d, –directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not  derefer-
ence symbolic links

-D, –dired
generate output designed for Emacsג€™ dired mode

-f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

-F, –classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

likewise, except do not append ג€˜*ג€™

across  -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
verbose -l, vertical -C

like -l –time-style=full-iso

-g     like -l, but do not list owner

-G, –no-group
like -l, but do not list group

-h, –human-readable
with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

–si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, –dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

follow  each  command line symbolic link that points to a direc-

do not list implied entries matching shell  PATTERN  (overridden
by -a or -A)

–indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none  (default),  slash  (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify

-i, –inode
with -l, print the index number of each file

-I, –ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

-k     like –block-size=1K

-l     use a long listing format

-L, –dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa-
tion  for  the file the link references rather than for the link

-m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, –numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

-N, –literal
print raw entry names (donג€™t treat e.g. control characters  spe-

-o     like -l, but do not list group information

-p, –indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories

-q, –hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters

show  non  graphic  characters  as-is (default unless program is
ג€˜lsג€™ and output is a terminal)

-Q, –quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale,  shell,
shell-always, c, escape

-r, –reverse
reverse order while sorting

-R, –recursive
list subdirectories recursively

-s, –size
with -l, print size of each file, in blocks

-S     sort by file size

extension  -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v, status -c,
time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time:  atime,
access,  use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if

with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,
locale,  +FORMAT.   FORMAT is interpreted like ג€˜dateג€™; if FORMAT
is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent  files
and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with ג€˜posix-ג€™,
STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

-t     sort by modification time

-T, –tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

-u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with  -l:  show  access
time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

-U     do  not  sort;  list entries in directory order.  In combination
with one_per_line format ג€˜-1ג€™, it will  show  files  immediately
and it has no memory limitations.

-v     sort by version

-w, –width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value

-x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

-X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

-1     list one file per line

SELinux options:

Display  security  context.    Enable -l. Lines will probably be
too wide for most displays.

-Z, –context
Display security context so it fits on most displays.   Displays
only mode, user, group, security context and file name.

Display only security context and file name.

–help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

SIZE  may  be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol-
lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
P, E, Z, Y.

By  default,  color is not used to distinguish types of files.  That is
equivalent to using –color=none.  Using the –color option without the
optional  WHEN  argument  is  equivalent to using –color=always.  With
–color=auto, color codes are output only if standard  output  is  con-
nected  to  a  terminal  (tty).  The environment variable LS_COLORS can
influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

Exit status is 0 if OK, 1 if minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.

Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

Report bugs to <>.

Copyright ֲ© 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software.  You may redistribute copies  of  it  under  the
terms       of       the      GNU      General      Public      License
<>.  There is NO WARRANTY,  to  the
extent permitted by law.

The  full  documentation  for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the  com-

info ls

should give you access to the complete manual.

ls 5.97                          January 2009                            LS(1)

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